What is Data ?
Data is a raw fact and figure such as name of person,age, location where is based, or any collection of a distinct small unit of information. It can be used in a variety of forms like text, numbers, media, bytes, etc.
What is Database?
A database is a collection of interrelated data and a database system is basically a computer-based record keeping.
Purpose of Database
- Database reduce the data redundancy (Duplication of data) to a large extent.
- Database can control data inconsistency to a large extent.
- Databases facilitate sharing of data.
- Database enforce standards.
- Databases can ensure data security (protection of data against accidental or intentional disclosure to unauthorized persons, or unauthorized modification or destruction).
- Integrity can be maintained.
Type of Databases
A DBMS can support many different types of databases. Databases can classified according to the number of users, the database location and the expected type and extent of use.
- Number of users: Single-User Database or Multiple User Database( Work-group or Enterprise).
- Data Location: Centralized or Distributed Database.
- Data Usage: Operational or Data Warehouse Database.
What is DBMS?
A database is an organised, persistent collection of data of an organisation. The Database Management System is a collection of interrelated data (usually called database) and a set of program to access, update and manage those data (which form part of management system).
Or DBMS is a software package to facilitate creation and maintenance of computerized database. Its general purpose is to:
- Defining: Specifying data types and structure, and constraints for data to be stored.
- Construction: Storing data in a storage medium.
- Manipulating: Involve querying, updating, and generating results.
- Sharing: Allowing multiple users and programs to access data simultaneously.
Compoents of DBMS
Popular DBMS Software
Here, is the list of some popular DBMS system:
- Microsoft Access
- IBM DB2
- LibreOffice Base
- Microsoft SQL Server etc.
Application of DBMS
|Sector||Use of DBMS|
|Banking||For customer information, account activities, payments, deposits, loans, etc.|
|Airlines||For reservations and schedule information.|
|Universities||For student information, course registrations, colleges and grades.|
|Telecommunication||It helps to keep call records, monthly bills, maintaining balances, etc.|
|Finance||For storing information about stock, sales, and purchases of financial instruments like stocks and bonds.|
|Sales||Use for storing customer, product & sales information.|
|Manufacturing||It is used for the management of supply chain and for tracking production of items. Inventories status in warehouses.|
|HR Management||For information about employees, salaries, payroll, deduction, generation of paychecks, etc.|
A Database model defines the logical design and structure of a database and defines how data will be stored, accessed and updated in a database management system.
Types of Database models are:
- Hierarchical database
- Network database
- Relational database
- Entity-relationship database
- Object-Oriented database
In a Hierarchical database, model data is organized in a tree-like structure. Data is Stored Hierarchically (top-down or bottom-up) format. Data is represented using a parent-child relationship. In Hierarchical DBMS parent may have many children, but children have only one parent.
The network database model allows each child to have multiple parents. It helps you to address the need to model more complex relationships like as the orders/parts many-to-many relationship. In this model, entities are organized in a graph which can be accessed through several paths.
Relational DBMS is the most widely used DBMS model because it is one of the easiest. This model is based on normalizing data in the rows and columns of the tables. Relational model stored in fixed structures and manipulated using SQL.
Entity-Relationship (ER) Model is based on the notion of real-world entities and relationships among them. In this database model, relationships are created by dividing object of interest into entity and its characteristics into attributes.
In Object-oriented Model data stored in the form of objects. The structure which is called classes which display data within it. It defines a database as a collection of objects which stores both data members values and operations.
Advantages of DBMS
- DBMS offers a variety of techniques to store & retrieve data.
- DBMS serves as an efficient handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data.
- Uniform administration procedures for data.
- Application programmers never exposed to details of data representation and storage.
- A DBMS uses various powerful functions to store and retrieve data efficiently.
- Offers Data Integrity and Security.
- The DBMS implies integrity constraints to get a high level of protection against prohibited access to data.
- A DBMS schedules concurrent access to the data in such a manner that only one user can access the same data at a time.
- Reduced Application Development Time
Disadvantage of DBMS
DBMS may offer plenty of advantages but, it has certain flaws-
- Cost of Hardware and Software of a DBMS is quite high which increases the budget of your organization.
- Most database management systems are often complex systems, so training for users to use the DBMS is required.
- In some organizations, all data is integrated into a single database which can be damaged because of electric failure or database is corrupted on the storage media
- Use of the same program at a time by many users sometimes lead to the loss of some data.