Life cycle of a thread in Java


The life cycle of a thread in java is controlled by JVM. A thread goes through various stages in its lifecycle. For example, a thread is born, started, runs, and then dies. The following diagram shows the complete life cycle of a thread.

Life cycle of a thread in Java
Life cycle of a thread in Java

The java thread states are as follows:

  1. New
  2. Runnable
  3. Blocked
  4. Waiting
  5. Timed Waiting
  6. Terminated
  • New − A new thread begins its life cycle in the new state. It remains in this state until the program starts the thread. It is also referred to as a born thread.
  •  Runnable − After a newly born thread is started, the thread becomes runnable. A thread in this state is considered to be either running or ready for execution but it’s waiting for resource allocation
  • Blocked – waiting to acquire a monitor lock to enter or re-enter a synchronized block/method
  •  Waiting − Sometimes, a thread transitions to the waiting state while the thread waits for another thread to perform a task. Thread transitions back to the runnable state only when another thread signals the waiting thread to continue executing.
  •  Timed Waiting − Waiting for some other thread to perform a specific action for a specified period. A thread in this state transitions back to the runnable state when that time interval expires or when the event it is waiting for occurs.
  •  Terminated (Dead) − A runnable thread enters the terminated state when it completes its task or otherwise terminates.
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