Operating System Introduction

by anupmaurya
324 views

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

What is Operating System?

An Operating System (OS) acts as an interface connecting a computer user with the hardware of the computer. An operating system falls under the category of system software that performs all the fundamental tasks like file management, memory handling, process management, handling the input/output, and governing and managing the peripheral devices like disk drives, networking hardware, printers, etc.

Features of Operating Systems

Here is a list of some significant functions of an Operating System, which is found common, is almost all operating system:

  • Memory Management
  • Processor Managing
  • Device Managing
  • File handling
  • Security Handling
  • System performance controlling
  • Job accounting and handling
  • Error detecting and handling
  • Synchronization with other software and users

Types of Operating System

Different types of Operating System are as follows:

  1. Simple Batch System
  2. Multiprogramming Batch System
  3. Multiprocessor System
  4. Desktop System
  5. Distributed Operating System
  6. Clustered System
  7. Realtime Operating System
  8. Handheld System

Objectives of Operating System

An operating system consists of a special program that controls the execution of the application program. The OS acts as an intermediary between applications and hardware components. OS can be thought of as having three objectives. These are:

  • Convenience: It makes a computer more suitable to use.
  • Efficiency: It provides the computer system resources with efficiency and in easy to use format.
  • Ability to develop: It should be built in such a way that it permits the efficient development, testing, and installation of new system functions without interfering with service.

What are the applications of the Operating System

Following are some of the important activities that an Operating System performs:

  • Security: Operating system prevents unauthorized access to programs and data.
  • Controls the performance of a system: Recording delays between a request for a service and response from the system.
  • Job accounting: You can keep track of the time and resources.
  • Error detecting aids: OS helps to trace error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids.
  • Helps to Coordinate between other software: Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers, and other software.

Advantages of Operating System

Some advantages of the Operating System are as follows:

  • The operating system helps to improve the efficiency of the work and helps to save a lot of time by reducing the complexity.
  • The different components of a system are independent of each other, thus failure of one component does not affect the functioning of another.
  • The operating system mainly acts as an interface between the hardware and the software.
  • Users can easily access the hardware without writing large programs.
  • With the help of an Operating system, sharing data becomes easier with a large number of users.
  • We can easily install any game or application on the Operating system easily and can run them
  • An operating system can be refreshed easily from time to time without having any problems.
  • An operating system can be updated easily.
  • There are various operating systems that are accessible in open source. Example: Unix/Linux these can easily run on the personal computer with no cost that means Free.
  • An operating system is mainly used to hide the complexity of the hardware.
  • An operating system easily manages the computer as programming becomes easier.
  • With the help of an operating system, multitasking becomes easier.

Disadvantages of an Operating system

Some drawbacks of using an operating system are as follows:

  • Expensive There are some open-source platforms like Linux. But some operating systems are expensive. Also, users can use free operating systems but generally, there is a bit difficulty to run them than others. On the other hand, operating systems like Microsoft Windows having GUI functionality and other in-built features are very expensive.
  • Virus Threat Operating Systems are open to virus attacks and sometimes it happens that many users download the malicious software packages on their system which pauses the functioning of the Operating system and also slows it down.
  • Complexity Some operating systems are complex in nature because the language used to establish them is not clear and well defined. If there occurs an issue in the operating system then the user becomes unable to resolve that issue.
  • System Failure An operating system is the heart of the computer system if due to any reason it will stop functioning then the whole system will crashes.

Examples of Operating System

  • Windows
  • Android
  • iOS
  • Mac OS
  • Linux
  • Window Phone OS
  • Chrome OS