What is Computer network?
A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes.
Hardware Components Of Computer Network
Server: Servers are computers that runs operating system and hold data that can be shared over a computer network.
Client: A client is a computer that is connected to other computers in the network and can receive data sent by other computers.
Transmission Media: All computers in a computer network are connected with each other through a transmission media such as wires, optical fibre cables, coaxial cables etc.
Network Interface card: Each system or computer in a computer network must have a card called network interface card (NIC). The main purpose of NIC is to format the data, send the data and receive the data at the receiving node.
Hub: Hub acts as a device that connects all the computer in a network to each other. Any request that comes from a client computer first received by Hub and then hub transmit this request over a network so that the correct server receives and respond to it.
Switch: Switch is similar to hub however instead of broadcasting a incoming data request it uses the physical device address in the incoming request to transfer the request to correct server computer.
Router: Router joins multiple computer networks to each other. For example lets say a company runs 100 computers over a local area network(LAN) and another company runs another LAN of 150 computers. These both LANs can be connected with each other through a internet connection which is provided by the router.
LAN cable: A wire that is used to connect more than one computers or other devices such as printers and scanner to each other.
Software Components Of Computer Network
- Networking Operating System − Network Operating Systems is typically installed in the server and facilitate workstations in a network to share files, database, applications, printers etc. Some examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
- Protocol Suite − A protocol is a rule or guideline followed by each computer for data communication. A protocol suite is a set of related protocols that are laid down for computer networks. The two popular protocol suites are −
- OSI Model ( Open System Interconnections)
- TCP / IP Model