What is the Internet | IntraNet | ExtraNet?

by anupmaurya
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What is Internet?

The Internet is a global network that uses TCP /IP protocols to connect millions of computers worldwide. It can include different networks, such as private, public, organizational, academic,
government, etc. It allows users to communicate with each other and share massive amounts of data in various formats. Internet is available in both modes, wired and wireless. In wired mode, the data
travels through fiber optic cables, whereas in wireless mode, the data travels through radio waves.

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a network of networks that consist of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Origin of Internet

The origins of the Internet date back to the development of packet switching and research commissioned by the United States Department of Defense in the 1960s to enable time-sharing of computers.

The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for the interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1970s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide
participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks.

The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network.

Although the Internet was widely used by academia in the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.

Applications of the Internet

  1. File sharing
  2. Downloading media files and software
  3. Sending and receiving emails
  4. Browsing any information
  5. Using social media platforms, forums, and communities
  6. E-Commerce, bill payments, online purchasing of food and medicines
  7. Voice Calls, Video Conferencing, and Chatting with friends, family members, and colleagues

How does the Internet work?

The internet is a network created by connecting a large number of computers or computer networks. It is a type of network that cannot be owned by an entity. It is formed using networks of networks configured using complex standards and rules (such as protocols). The Internet works through a packet routing network following the protocols, where packet routing is the technique of routing data packets from source
computer to a destination computer.
However, there are several protocols; the transmission and internet protocols are the primary impelling agents that help build the Internet network. The other common protocols used by the connected networks are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP. Besides, protocols and applications like Telnet, Gopher, WWW, Usenet News, Internet Relay Chat, etc. are also used throughout the working of the Internet.

Advantages of Internet

  1. The Internet establishes a network of devices from different locations all around the world.
  2. It allows people to communicate easily from any location worldwide.
  3. The Internet is helping people to get information easily on different topics.
  4. It keeps the people updated on what’s happening worldwide with the latest news and technologies.
  5. It connects people through communities, forums, social networking sites and helps them work together digitally.
  6. The Internet has made selling and purchasing of products and services easier.
  7. The Internet is the best platform for people to show their talent, such as singing, dancing, drawing, etc.

What is IntraNet?

An Intranet is a part of the Internet and is owned and used privately by an organization. It is mainly used to connect all the computers and establish a private network of an organization to provide employees the ability to collaborate on projects, manage or update information, share calendars, and to-do list, etc. Organizations prefer using Intranet to keep their data inaccessible from outsiders, making their suspicious data and project information secure.

Intranet includes a firewall to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the network. The websites created over Intranet look almost similar and act like any other website on the Internet. However, these websites are
much more task-oriented than promotional design websites on the Internet. Like the Internet, the intranet’s websites can also provide the interface to form communication in the shape of chatting, image sharing, audio-video conferencing, etc. All these activities can only be used by authorized users who have permission to access the Intranet network.

Applications of the Intranet

  1. Sharing the updates regarding the company’s rules and regulations
  2. Accessing employees details
  3. On-boarding of employees and customer details
  4. Sharing project details
  5. Submission of projects and reports
  6. Submitting feedback or complaints
  7. Corporate telephone directories

How does Intranet work?

Intranet usually runs in a client/server environment where the computers are connected using local area networks. Each computer is identified by the MAC address or an IP address, which remains unique for every computer. As an Internet, the Intranet also uses the client-server model based on the TCP / IP protocol suite. Because web browsers do not depend on the platform, they are also used on Intranet to access and retrieve information from the server within the organization. Besides, there is no need to install any special
kind of software on the systems on the Intranet. But most companies use customized software designed purposely for company-specific tasks.
In addition to the protocols, Intranet uses a firewall to filter unwanted elements to the network and protects it from external intruders. It also includes network connectivity and the public telecommunication system, which help access and share the company’s data, projects, and operations securely with the staff.

Advantages of Intranet

  • The intranet is helping organizations to access internal and external information securely.
  • The intranet is fast, easy-to-use, and low-cost to implement.
  • It enables employees to connect with other systems throughout the organization.
  • The intranet is based on open standards.
  • It has added improved communication and enhanced productivity to the operational business processes.
  • It encourages collaboration and reduces the error rate.
  • It helps cut down the administration and the processing time.

What is ExtraNet?

An extranet is a controlled private network that allows access to partners, vendors and suppliers or an authorized set of customers – normally to a subset of the information accessible from an organization’s intranet. it provides access to needed services for authorized parties, without granting access to an organization’s entire network.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, several industries started to use the term ‘extranet’ to describe centralized
repositories of shared data (and supporting applications) made accessible via the web only to authorized members of particular workgroups – for example, geographically dispersed, multi-company project teams. Some applications
are offered on a software as a service (SaaS) basis.

Extranet refers to a network within an organization, using the internet to connect to outsiders in a controlled manner. It helps to connect businesses with their customers and suppliers and therefore allows working in a
collaborative manner.

How does ExtraNet works

Extranet is implemented as a Virtual Private Network (VPN) because it uses the internet to connect to corporate organizations and there is always a threat to information security. VPN offers a secure network in public infrastructure(Internet).

Advantages of ExtraNet

  • Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • Share product catalogs exclusively with trade partners
  • Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts
  • Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies
  • Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies, such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks
  • Improved efficiency: since the customers are satisfied with the information provided it can be an advantage for the organization where they will get more customers which increases the efficiency.

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